The illusion of choice
The illusion of choice or control may be crucial to our motivational systems and feelings of well-being for some adaptive reasons deriving from natural selection. Perhaps it is only the belief in internal control that keeps one actively trying to manipulate the environment, which in turn is crucial for survival.
Who are you? How do we form an identity? How many types of identity are there?
Social Identity, which is the part of an individual’s self, is a concept which derives from his/her membership in a social group, together with the value and emotional significance attached to that membership.
Ethnic Identity, which is the part of an individual’s self knowledge that concerns his/her membership in a particular ethnic group.
Adolescents who identify with both mainstream culture & their ethnic group, create what is called a bicultural or integrated identity.
Those who maintain a strong ethnic identity, maintain a separated identity.
Individuals who give up their ethnic heritage in favor of mainstream culture are said to be: assimilated.
Those who feel weak ties to their own ethnic culture as well as the mainstream culture, feel marginal, since they are outsiders in both cultures. Or, they adapt and become Bi-cultural.
BiCultural Competence is the successful functioning in both one’s culture of origin as well as in the new culture.
Under the circumstances and according to those circumstances of a culture, the according corresponding social norms emerge.
Social norms are rules and expectations about how group members should behave.
Whereas social role refers to the set of norms that apply people in a particular position..
Internal attributions (moods, attitudes, personality, ability, health, preferences) and external attributions (pressure, money, weather, social situation) in turn usually determine Stability Vs Instability.
Social exchange is broken down in terms of interaction, on the basis of costs and benefits to each person, of possible ways he or she can interact. Even when unaware, the process of interaction creates rewards or benefits (information, smiles, approval, money, feelings) and costs (boredom, disapproval, being misunderstood) for the people involved.
Variations in speech other than the actual verbal contact, called para-language, carry a great deal of meaning. Voice pitch, loudness, rhythm, inflection, hesitations convey information.
This is why sometimes we intuitively “know” what the other person is about, or what is saying, or what he/she really means.
Multiple channels are the three channels of communication, verbal, visible, paralinguistic and provides most information about a person’s real emotions. Conflicts across channels are particularly important in interpreting apparently deceptive communications.
In conflicting situations, the non verbal communication is the one relied upon most heavily. The instinct as one can calls it.
People tend to imagine that everyone responds the way they do. They tend to see their own behavior as typical. This tendency to exaggerate is called the false consensus effect.
…….. Self Regulation:
Self Regulation, refers to the ways in which people control and direct their own actions.
SITUATION IS DIFFERENT
and therefore needs to be assessed according to the particular Self Concept.*
An aspect of Self Regulation involves self-complexity, which is the way people think of themselves according to the different groups they belong. For example, one can be a son, a brother, a friend, a husband, a father and a man, at the same time.
Another aspect is self efficacy, which is the expectations that we hold about our abilities to accomplish certain tasks. The smoker will not stop smoking unless he believes he can do it, however much he may want to stop.
Self Awareness, leads people to evaluate their behavior against a standard and to set an adjustment process in motion, for meeting the standard they set for themselves.
Self Attention, causes people to compare themselves to standards such as physical appearance, intellectual performance, athletic prowess or moral integrity.
We attempt to conform to the standard, evaluate our behavior against the standard, decide that it other matches the standard or does not and continue adjusting and comparing, until we meet the standard or until we give up.